Columbia is the main country that you will find fine emeralds. Currently about 150+ mining sites are actively searching for the mineral. An estimated 3/4 of all the current Colombian emerald production belongs to the Coscuez mine. The hardness of the emerald will protect if from scratches but the structure of the gem stone make it real brittle for cutting and mounting. When you hear of someone calling the cut a "emerald cut" it means that it is cut in a special way to not only show off its beauty with long angels but it was also cut to add support for the gem.
The loose emeralds of to are treated with oils and special resigns. This will give the stone a deeper green. The stone should never be cleaned in hot water or with an ultrasonic machine as it will damage the item. The emerald's precious green color is actually caused by small amounts of chromium and enhanced by traces of iron. It does have a hardness of 7.5 to 8 and has a hexagonal crystal system. It was also once recommended as amulets to ward off epilepsy in children. Emeralds were known to strengthen the owner's memory, quicken intelligence, and assist in predicting the future. It is known to be a symbol of rebirth and romance. Major sources come from Columbia, Zambia, Brazil, Pakistan and Zimbabwe. Loose emeralds
are the way to the heart.
The green of the emerald is the colour of life and of the springtime, which comes round again and again. But it has also, for centuries, been the colour of beauty and of constant love. In ancient Rome, green was the colour of Venus, the goddess of beauty and love. And today, this colour still occupies a special position in many cultures and religions. Green, for example, is the holy colour of Islam. Many of the states of the Arab League have green in their flags as a symbol of the unity of their faith. Yet this colour has a high status in the Catholic Church too, where green is regarded as the most natural and the most elemental of the liturgical colours.
The magnificent green of the emerald is a colour which conveys harmony, love of Nature and elemental joie de vivre. The human eye can never see enough of this unique colour. Pliny commented that green gladdened the eye without tiring it. Green is perceived as fresh and vivid, never as monotonous. And in view of the fact that this colour always changes somewhat between the bright light of day and the artificial light of a lamp, emerald green retains its lively vigour in all its nuances.
Emerald is a rare and valuable gemstone and, as such, it has provided the incentive for developing synthetic emeralds. Both hydrothermal and flux-growth
synthetics have been produced, and a method has been developed for producing an emerald overgrowth on colorless beryl. The first commercially successful emerald synthesis process was that of Carroll Chatham. Because Chatham's emeralds do not have any water and contain traces of vanadate, molybdenum and vanadium, a lithium vanadate flux process is probably involved. The other large producer of flux emeralds is Pierre Gilson Sr., which has been on the market since 1964. Gilson's emeralds are usually grown on natural colorless beryl seeds which become coated on both sides. Growth occurs at the rate of 1 mm per month and a typical seven-month growth run produces emerald crystals of 7 mm of thickness (Nassau, K. Gems Made By Man, 1980).